As I mentioned previously, devices on a SIP network are called User Agents. A User Agent Client and a User Agent Server are both required for communication.
SIP defines three server elements: a Registrar, a Proxy Server, or a Redirect Server. A Registrar server accepts REGISTER requests and is typically co-located with a proxy server or a redirect server. It can offer location services, and registers SIP parties in a SIP domain. A Proxy Server functions as both a server and a client that makes and receives requests on behalf of other SIP clients. It supports requests locally or forwards them to other servers. It can interpret and re-write a SIP request message before forwarding it to another server or User Agent. A Redirect server will accept SIP requests, read the information and map the address in the request to the next hop. It will then return an appropriate message to the client. The client can then directly contact the appropriate next hop. It does not forward SIP requests to other servers and it does not accept calls. A SIP Redirect Server will only respond with 3xx series responses. It is important to note that these three types of SIP servers are logically, and not physically distinct.
In addition to the three server types and the User Agents that are present in a SIP Network, there are also Session Border Controllers (SBC) and gateways on the network. A Session Border Controller is inserted into the signaling path and handles the signaling and media being sent across the network. The SBC can also perform anti-tromboning functions. Tromboning occurs when two devices on the same subnet are both trying to connect through a third server when they should be allowed to connect directly. By directing the two devices to speak directly to each other the trunks can be opened up for use by other devices. An SBC can also implement transcoding when required, but this is not recommended, as was discussed previously. An SBC can restrict call flow or allow connections to exist where they would not have otherwise been able to exist (due to a firewall between the two end-points, or other security policies). It is also interesting to note that the Session Border Controller can enforce interception of network sessions. This is interesting because, without the SBC, there would be no way to intercept the flow of data between two SIP devices as can be required by various law enforcement agencies. This is because under normal circumstances SIP will try to have end-points communicate directly with each other. A Gateway simply acts as a connecting point between a SIP network and a dissimilar network, such as H.323 or PSTN. Any calls that are being sent out to the PSTN will have to go through a gateway.
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